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  • Thein H Oo
    Discovery Medicine. 2022, 34(173): 165-169.

    Pernicious anemia (PA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by cobalamin deficiency (CD) due to immune-mediated chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). CD results from poor absorption of dietary cobalamin from the terminal ileum, triggered by positive intrinsic factor (IF) antibodies. It is the most common cause of CD worldwide. Despite advances in understanding biochemistry and pathogenesis of PA, its diagnosis can be extremely challenging as the disease may present with hematological as well as nonhematological manifestations and also because of unreliable serum cobalamin assays. Nonhematological manifestations may present in a patient with PA even in the absence of hematological findings. Herein, an overview of common and uncommon nonhematological manifestations of PA is discussed.

  • Mohamed Abbas, Mohammed Alqahtani, Mohammad Y. Alshahrani, Khulud Alabdullh
    Discovery Medicine. 2022, 34(173): 158-164.

    Pancreatic cancer, especially pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), has a mortality rate that is among the highest. The single therapy option that has the potential to be curative for the illness is surgery, which is generally accepted as being the only effective treatment available. This is because most pancreatic tumors are intractable to chemotherapy. Because of the severe nature of the illness that these tumors cause, only around twenty percent of these tumors can be surgically removed when the first symptoms appear. This is due to the harm that these tumors cause. Since surgery in late-stage cases does not usually offer benefits, here we shed light on the molecular mechanisms of the most aggressive pancreatic tumors that are highly resistant to drugs. We also describe two latest novel treatment approaches that are used to combat this fierce tumor: targeting exosome-mediated tumor-enhancement mechanisms and radiation therapy in combination with adverse effect-mitigating agents. Effective treatments for pancreatic cancer are needed to meet this urgent medical need.